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Visitor trails Osiris, An Ancient Egyptian God

Egyptian Antiquities - Length: 1 hr 30 mins - Tour days: Monday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

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Livre des Morts de Khonsoumès (détail)
Livre des Morts de Khonsoumès (détail)

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

00Introduction

The fundamental concepts of Egyptian religious thought are presented via an examination of just one of the many Egyptian gods. Osiris has a unique status: as the great national god of the dead, he was associated closely with the Egyptian royalty.

Any discussion of Osiris necessarily touches on a vast array of beliefs held by the ancient Egyptians. The number of works connected with him is immense: as god of the dead, he is omnipresent in tombs, the source of most of the surviving Egyptian works. This trail proposes a selection of items that are all interrelated. As you follow it, you will see many other monuments illustrating the main beliefs about Osiris held by the ancient Egyptians.
The oldest texts about Osiris, the Pyramid Texts, date from the late Old Kingdom. Faith in this redeeming god remained intact until the Roman period, when Egypt was under the yoke of the Roman empire. The cultural influence of the Osirian religion was still widespread during this era, as illustrated in the room of Roman funerary works (lower ground floor, Denon wing).
As depicted on the inscriptions on King Wenis's pyramid (c. 2350 BC), Osiris was already part of a myth developed by the theologians of the temple at Heliopolis, the city of Ra (the sun god), at the tip of the Nile Delta. The eight descendants of Ra formed, along with Ra, an ennead, the figure symbolizing plurality. Ra conceived two twins, Shu, the god of the air and wind, and Tefnut. They in turn conceived the twins Geb and Nut, and separated their children, who were born clasped in each other's arms. Geb became the god of the earth, and Nut, the goddess of the sky.
Once the earth had been created, Geb and Nut conceived Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys. Osiris ruled over the earthly realm, with Isis as his wife. Seth was the disruptive element: he assassinated Osiris to claim the throne. Horus, Osiris's posthumous son, restored the earthly balance by triumphing over Seth and inheriting Osiris's realm on earth, while his father then reigned over the land of the dead. Egyptian royalty was based on this mythology.
In the Pyramid Texts, Osiris is generally equated with the vegetation and fertility provided by the waters of the Nile.
Discovering the Egyptian gods in a museum is like walking in the footsteps of a historian working with real, complex, and non-linear documentation-as opposed to a contemporary book, in which the material is organized. We can better understand the ancient Egyptians by seeing their creations one after another, as we will during this tour, viewing the works through their eyes and analyzing their customs and beliefs.
Hundreds of other works in the museum relate to the Osirian myth; armed with the knowledge gleaned during this trail, you will be able to identify them yourself.


How to get to the next stop:

Cross the Sully wing and take the left staircase in the Crypte du Sphinx. A statue of Nakhthorheb stands in the southern wing of the Cour Carrée. Enter Room 12.

Naos qui abritait une statue d'Osiris
Naos qui abritait une statue d'Osiris

© R.M.N./Les frères Chuzeville

01Naos housing a statue of Osiris

Beyond the side chapels devoted to the gods Amun (to the right) and Hathor (to the left), and to the gods of Elephantine (to the left), Tod, and Medamud (to the right), is the stone shrine, or naos, that once housed the most precious statue of all: the image of the temple's god, Osiris. This statue was where offerings were made and daily rites took place. It was the focal point of the cult, around which all temple activity revolved. An Egyptian temple was above all the earthly abode of a god; the innermost area was private and out of bounds to the public. Several rooms around the sanctuary were used to store precious religious objects, including the sacred bark. This boat was taken out on certain feast days.
The inscriptions tell us that this naos was intended for a statue of "Osiris of the riverbank." The god's temple, now completely dismantled, was discovered in Kom el-Ahmar, to the west of the river. The gods were depicted on the temple walls "so that their names will last forever." Note the two goddesses at the top of the arch over the entrance: Isis to the left, her hieroglyphic name fashioned in the shape of a throne on her head; and Nephthys to the right, with her hieroglyphic name, which means "Lady of the Mansion," on her head. Each one is facing the names of the king who built the naos: Amasis. Osiris's two sisters played a major role in his history.

How to get to the next stop:

In the center of the naos is an effigy of the god Osiris flanked by his son, the falcon-headed Horus, and a king.

Royal and divine triad
Royal and divine triad

© 2006 Musée du Louvre / Christian Décamps

02Royal and divine triad

Our first image of Osiris appears in the middle of the massive statue carved into a thick back pillar, depicted in his most common representation, with feet joined, his body wrapped in a shroud, and two scepters-the crook and the flail-in his hands. He is wearing a mitered headdress flanked with two ostrich plumes, and has a long beard, which curls up at the bottom.
When Osiris died, he was the first to receive the mummification rites: his body, saved in this form, became the prototype for Egyptian mummies. Isis and Anubis resurrected Osiris by inventing the technique; the Egyptians then reproduced what they believed to be an essential practice. A person's soul, the ba, represented here as a human-headed bird, was able to leave the tomb during the day to fly among the living, as long as it could return to the body in the tomb. Hence the Egyptian title of the Book of the Dead: the "Book of Coming Forth by Day."
According to myth, Osiris was an ancient king of Egypt, a good man and wise ruler. After his assassination, he became the god of the dead, and his son, Horus, succeeded him on earth. Since then, every king of Egypt becomes an embodiment of Horus in turn.
Osiris is surrounded by his successors: to his right, the king (anonymous); and to his left, Horus, a falcon-headed man, wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The royal insignia of the uraeus, a cobra with its hood extended, adorns the brows of all three figures.

How to get to the next stop:

The statue of the goddess Isis breastfeeding her son, Horus, is to the left of Osiris in the naos.

The goddess Isis suckling her son Horus
The goddess Isis suckling her son Horus

© Musée du Louvre

03The goddess Isis suckling her son Horus

Isis is a model loyal companion, wife, widow, and mother. She helped her husband Osiris create the foundations of human civilization on earth. When Osiris was slain by Seth, Isis did not rest until she had found his remains. With the help of her sister Nephthys and the god Anubis, she restored the body as a mummy. Using magic, she brought the body to life long enough to conceive their son, Horus. During her pregnancy and the first years of her child's life, she hid from Seth in the swamplands of Khemmis, a mythical island in the Delta. Various legends recount how the infant Horus (Heru-pa-khered in Egyptian, Harpocrates in Greek) survived scorpion stings thanks to his mother's knowledge of magic. He is represented as a child according to the conventions of Egyptian art: naked, a finger on his lips, and with a lock of hair falling from the side of his head.
This large granite statue is a time-honored depiction: the goddess is seated in a heiratic pose, offering her breast to the child seated on her lap. It was dedicated by the "divine worshipper" Shepenwepet II, daughter of King Piankhy.
The cult of Isis as the universal mother spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region during the Roman period. Her sanctuary in Philae was the last Egyptian temple closed under Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. This image of the goddess Isis breastfeeding her son was reproduced in thousands of bronze and faience copies.

How to get to the next stop:

Go down the staircase in front of the naos to the Osiris crypt, which leads to the other side of the Cour Carrée, under the passage opposite the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. The large granite sarcophagus of King Ramesses III lies in the center of the crypt.

Sarcophagus box of Ramesses III
Sarcophagus box of Ramesses III

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

04Sarcophagus box of Ramesses III

The sarcophagus that contained King Ramesses III's mummy is shaped like a cartouche, or an oval loop of rope encircling the royal name. You can see this best from the staircase overlooking the coffin. The engraved design on the polished granite slab was originally painted blue, but the color has now almost disappeared. A goddess seated at his feet spreads her wings in protection: this is Isis. Her sister Nephthys performs the same gesture at the head of the sarcophagus. Protected by the two goddesses, Ramesses thus shares the destiny of Osiris. Just as the king of Egypt was a new Horus on earth, a deceased king was equated with Osiris.
The long sides of the royal coffin are engraved with texts and images from the Book of the Secret Chambers and the Book of Gates. They relate the travels of the solar god Ra's bark through the nocturnal world, after he disappears to the west, and moves through the twelve gates of the underworld during the twelve hours of the night. The sun is then one with Osiris. It travels between two lines of gods and the blessed, on whom it casts the last rays of his light; they acclaim his arrival and help him beat his enemies and prevent attacks by the serpent of chaos, Apophis. The sun draws the necessary strength for rebirth in the morning from his trials and successive triumphs. Like Osiris, Ra offers the hope of eternal rebirth.

How to get to the next stop:

Turn around to face the alcove situated in the middle of the right-hand wall (display case 12).

Statue of Osiris
Statue of Osiris

© Musée du Louvre/G. Poncet

05Statue of Osiris

A large statue of Osiris from the Late Period was placed in a niche of the crypt to create the impression of an open naos. The eyes, inlaid with white stone and black glass, give the god a striking expression. His body is made from wood and would originally have been wrapped with like a mummy in linen stiffened with plaster. The plumes, ram's horns, and uraeus (a cobra with its hood extended), are in bronze, as are the two scepters-the crook and flail-he holds in each hand. Osiris, the great national god of the dead, was adopted throughout the entire land and worshipped in many temples during the later periods of ancient Egypt; it is therefore impossible to determine which sanctuary this statue came from.

How to get to the next stop:

Statues of the goddesses Nephthys and Isis mourning Osiris, one on each side of him.

La déesse Nephthys pleure Osiris
La déesse Nephthys pleure Osiris

© Musée du Louvre/G. Poncet

06An Ancient Egyptian God

Two statues from two different locations stand on either side of Osiris. They represent two sister goddesses from the Osirian myth: Isis and Nephthys. Each one is wearing her hieroglyphic name on her head. They are shown in the attitude of funeral mourners, with their arms raised. The women of the family and their entourage had to express their grief according to ritual gestures. These emotional outpourings became far more discreet when expressed in art. Painted wooden sarcophagi from the Late Period were sometimes decorated with these divine statues, which then mourned for the deceased, who, like the king, became embodiments of Osiris.

How to get to the next stop:

Remain in the crypt and walk toward Imeneminet's coffin.

Couvercle du cercueil d'Imeneminet
Couvercle du cercueil d'Imeneminet

© R.M.N./Les frères Chuzeville

07An Ancient Egyptian God

As early as the Old Kingdom, the two main temples to Osiris were located at Busiris in the Delta and Abydos in Upper Egypt. By the Middle Kingdom, Abydos had become a pilgrimage site that drew Egyptians from all over the country. According to legend, an angry Seth dismembered Osiris's body, and the temple of Abydos kept the god's head as a relic. His reliquary was put atop a pole, which was then placed in a support decorated with seated lions. The relic was not visible and remained hidden from human eyes.
The coffin, made of cartonnage (textile stiffened with plaster), was entirely painted. The famous reliquary of Abydos, framed by winged deities, is depicted on the front of the body. Inside, another drawing of the reliquary coincides exactly with the position of the mummy's head.
A djed pillar, another Osiris insignia, decorates the back, symbolizing the god's backbone. This sacred pillar was the chief relic in the town of Busiris and was a symbol of stability. The ceremony of raising the djed pillar was also part of a ritual symbolizing the resurrection of Osiris. The pillar is often depicted with the arms, scepters, and crown of Osiris. The meaning of this decoration is clear: enclosed between the two emblems, the deceased was equated with the god of the dead, and hence shared in his immortality. Osiris offered the promise of life after death for all those who received the rites that would transform them, in turn, into Osiris.

How to get to the next stop:

The crypt contains the carved state pillar of the Great Priest of Osiris Wennefer.

Le grand-prêtre d'Osiris Ounennéfer
Le grand-prêtre d'Osiris Ounennéfer

© R.M.N./B. Hatala

08An Ancient Egyptian God

The chief priest in the temple of Osiris at Abydos obviously held a position of great power. During the New Kingdom, this priesthood remained within the same family for several generations. Here is Wennefer, who lived under the reign of Ramesses II, holding the famous reliquary that he was in charge of close to his chest. Wennefer was named for one of the god's most common epithets, Osiris Wennefer, which means "the Perfect Being."

How to get to the next stop:

A miniature, three-walled chapel was built on the other side of the passage. The sides have been opened up slightly for better viewing (display case 10). In the middle is the statue of the same Senusret, which was originally placed inside the chapel decorated with these three stelae.

Chapelle de Sénousret, serviteur du vizir
Chapelle de Sénousret, serviteur du vizir

© R.M.N./B. Hatala

09An Ancient Egyptian God

During the Middle Kingdom (c. 2033-1710 BC), the aspiration for rebirth spread from the exclusive domain of the royalty to include the middle classes, who could have the mummification and burial rites invented for Osiris performed. Abydos became a major pilgrimage site, and hundreds of chapels were constructed near the temple. These were cenotaphs, commemorative monuments built by families to ensure their presence near the great god during celebrations. A very large number of stelae come from this place; they were placed in the walls of these private chapels made of sun-dried bricks (see Room 23, Study Gallery 2).
The stelae from the chapel of Senusret, a vizier's servant, reproduce a smaller version of the decor from Old Kingdom mastabas.
To the left, a reunion in honor of Senusret: entertained by the female dancers and musicians, the guests drink and inhale the scent of the flowers. At the top, Senusret receives offerings of food, including a calf. In the background, a phrase promises Senusret the food items "provided by the sky, provided by the earth, and that nourish the gods." In the top right: a hunter followed by two gazelles carries a baby in his arms. Butchers are cutting up an ox. In the swamps, Senusret fishes with a harpoon and hunts birds with a throw stick. In the middle: harvesting in the fields. In the bottom: Senusret and his wife at their dinner table, next to a beer brewer and near large earthenware jars and silos. To the right, the coffin on the water.

How to get to the next stop:

Return to the room to display case 9, entitled "Hymns to Osiris," which has only two stelae. One of these, the Hymn of Imenmes, shepherd of Amun's flocks, is a document of key importance.

Hymne d'Imenmès, chef des troupeaux d'Amon
Hymne d'Imenmès, chef des troupeaux d'Amon

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

10An Ancient Egyptian God

There are thousands of documents about Osiris. Each one provides information about a facet of his personality and his avatars, but no single text offers a complete version. These concepts were self-evident for Egyptians. Plutarch recorded the most complete version of the myth. It contains elements that existed as early as the Old Kingdom in the Pyramid Texts, but is presented from the viewpoint of a Greek writing in the 1st century AD.
This stele has one of the longest texts about Osiris and it takes the form of a hymn, a common type of text in Egypt.
At the top is a banquet for Imenmes and his family and friends. Two sons are serving him a meal, a libation, and incense. The text below is read from right to left. The first lines contain some of the epithets and temples of Osiris. Osiris is then represented as the heir to Geb and king of Egypt. After Osiris was killed, Isis searched and found his body, then conceived Horus, who was recognized as his heir. Finally, there is an offering formula for Imenmes. This is the basic funerary incantation which, through the magic of the word, ensures that all these blessings will become a reality for the recently deceased. In addition to food and products for the body, the deceased wanted his bird-soul, the ba, to be able to fly from the necropolis during the day to move among the living he loved on earth. Finally, the spell must guarantee that his ka receives the remains of the offerings from the god's altar.

How to get to the next stop:

Go back past the pillar-statue of Wennefer to display case 6, entitled "The funeral ceremonies and resurrection of Osiris." These unusual molds in the form of Osiris are at the bottom.

Moule pour Osiris germant
Moule pour Osiris germant

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

11An Ancient Egyptian God

According to the myth, Osiris was a rise ruler before he became the king of the dead. After receiving the kingdom of Egypt from his father, Geb, he taught men about agriculture, with the help of Isis. He was therefore a god of fertility and harvest before incarnating the promise of new life for the deceased. His skin is often painted green. During the fourth month of the flood (the month of November), when the floodwaters receded and the growing season began, major religious festivals were held throughout the country. Barley seeds were planted and germinated in Osiris beds-molds or frames in the shape of Osiris-living representations of the combined rebirth of nature and the god.

How to get to the next stop:

Climb the few steps leading to Room 14. Display case 11, on the intermediate landing to the right, displays funerary texts from the 1st millennium BC.

<i>Premier Livre des Respirations</i> d'Ousirour
<i>Premier Livre des Respirations</i> d'Ousirour

© R.M.N./Les frères Chuzeville

12An Ancient Egyptian God

In the centuries preceding the birth of Christ-after Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great and was ruled by a Macedonian dynasty-Osiris remained as popular as ever. Indeed, the Osirian funerary rites were practiced extensively, particularly the embalming procedures, sarcophagi, and funerary texts.
The First Book of Breathing is a funerary book from a late era that replaced the ancient Book of the Dead. The papyrus of Ousirour, with Osiris as judge of the dead, is read from right to left. It starts with a classical scene: Ousirour raises his arms in prayer as he stands before the god Osiris, seated, with a tall bouquet offering between them. Next is a full-page image of Osiris, accompanied by Isis, presiding over the weighing of the deceased soul to determine his worthiness for eternal life. The Ibis-headed god, Thoth, performs this step. The "Devourer" waits in front of the scale to gobble up souls that are too heavy. An assistant places a feather, the symbol of Truth and Justice, on one of the scales; Ousirour's heart (his righteousness) on the other scale must not tip the balance. This is a famous illustration from the Book of the Dead (chapter 125); others can be seen in Room 17. To the left, we see that Ousirour has triumphed: this is indicated by the crown of justification he wears in the following illustration, while he waves incense over the cow of the goddess Hathor, who watches over his remains placed in the tomb (chapter 162 of the Book of the Dead).

How to get to the next stop:

After climbing the stairs, you reach the center of an impressive line of upright sarcophagi; this is Room 14, the room of the sarcophagi.

Sarcophagus of Dioscorides, a Greek Egyptian
Sarcophagus of Dioscorides, a Greek Egyptian

© 2009 Musée du Louvre / Georges Poncet

13Sarcophagus of Dioscorides, a Greek Egyptian

Dioscorides, a general under Ptolemy VI, was a member of the Greek elite that ruled Egypt at the time, yet he was buried according to the ancient local Egyptian customs.
His dark stone sarcophagus is shaped like Osiris's mummified body. It is covered with religious inscriptions from the Book of the Dead, which are placed over the appropriate parts of the body.
The wig carried an inscription from chapter 162 on "how to light a flame under the head of the deceased." A human-headed bird on the chest represents Dioscorides's ba, his soul that can leave the tomb. On the lower register are the "four sons of Horus," guardians of the embalmed viscera kept in canopic jars, around the image of a scarab, the symbol of the sun reborn.
Below, a vignette represents Dioscorides seated opposite the funerary deities, and stood up worshipping Osiris and another god. Chapter 72, to "come forth by day and open the tomb," is placed here.
On the base of the sarcophagus, the god Anubis is depicted in the form of a dog and there is a representation of the tomb from which the deceased's ba-bird is flying.
Inside, the goddesses of the West (the land of the cemetery) and Nut (the Sky) frame the mummy. The deceased was therefore following the same trajectory as the sun in its daily course after its disappearance in the West and nocturnal journey in the belly of Nut, who sends it back to the world in the East in the morning.

How to get to the next stop:

Return to the end of the room and go into the small Room 15, "The mummy: embalming and burial." One of the Louvre's few mummies is displayed in display case 1.

Mummy of a man
Mummy of a man

© 1998 Musée du Louvre / Etienne Revault

14Mummy of a man

The mummy, a human body, was treated with utmost respect. This one is a fascinating example in that it is still covered with the linen strips that were wrapped with artistic care in a characteristic design from this period. The cartonnage covering, a sort of papier-mâché consisting of used cloth dipped in a plaster glue, was painted with care. It forms a double protection for the body, covering the head, bust, legs, and feet. A scene of the mummy lying on a bed surrounded by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys is represented on the cartonnage of the legs. Similarly, the mummy is placed on a funerary bed of wood and bronze decorated with lion's paws and heads, in keeping with a custom from a late period. Four canopic jars for preserving the viscera are placed on the ground.
Embalming techniques evolved considerably throughout the three thousand years of Egyptian civilization. The essential step consisted in removing the viscera to prevent the body from decomposing. These were then embalmed separately: they were covered with salt, which dried them out, and then packed with cloth and refashioned to look like the natural organs. They were then placed in the canopic jars. The legend is extremely clear: Isis and Anubis invented these techniques for the god Osiris, who was the first mummy and the model for all that would follow.
Special prayers accompanied the embalming procedures. An extremely rare example of this ritual is displayed at the end of the display case.

How to get to the next stop:

Turn back and cross the room of the sarcophagi (Room 14) and go into Room 16, the room of the tombs, toward the right.

Livre des Morts de Khonsoumès
Livre des Morts de Khonsoumès

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

15An Ancient Egyptian God

Here is a copy of the most classical book, the Book of the Dead, which the Egyptian called the "Book of the Coming Forth by Day." This title was written on the outside edge of the papyrus so that it could be read when the scroll was rolled up. On this copy, it was cut out and turned over on the far right so that it would be visible.
The papyrus reads from right to left. The first chapter is a hymn to Osiris Wennefer, and the illustration represents the arrival of the deceased before the lord of the dead. The deceased is dressed as he was in life, and raises his arms in worship to the god, who is surrounded by his family: Isis and Nephthys. A falcon-headed god, Ra-Horakhty, stands in front of them. In the Book of the Dead, Osiris and the various manifestations of the sun god (Atum, Ra, Horakhty) are linked to form the cycle of rebirth. On the rest of the papyrus, Khonsumes waves incense over the mountain of the West and plows the earth in the kingdom of the dead.
The rest of the book is displayed above: to the right, Khonsumes stands before the judgment hall of Osiris, where the judges await. An image represents Khonsumes's mummy on his funerary bed with the four canopic jars under the bed. Above, Khonsumes's ba, his winged soul.
This magnificent papyrus book was carefully rolled into a scroll and conserved inside a hollow statue in the shape of Osiris, which was placed in the tomb when the mummy was buried.

How to get to the next stop:

Walk to the next room (Room 18), where you will find a dictionary of the gods.

SETH et sa compagne NephthysStatuette
SETH et sa compagne NephthysStatuette

© 2006 Musée du Louvre / Christian Décamps

16An Ancient Egyptian God

There is no single ancient text that includes all the Egyptian gods and describes their relationships. This was not a world formed of a single all-encompassing belief system, but rather a multitude of concepts, the product of an accumulation of local and national traditions with overlapping mythologies. A glossary for finding gods by their name is therefore a practical and neutral way of approaching this complex world. Under the letter S, you will find the Statuette of Seth and his companion Nephthys.
Although thousands of effigies of Osiris exist, there are very few of his rival Seth, who was a bellicose and disruptive god, yet an essential element in the myth and triumph of Osiris and Horus. This statuette is in fairly poor and worn condition: Seth is next to his wife, Nephthys, who according to legend betrayed him to help Isis.
He is depicted with the body of a man here, but he is often represented as a fantastic animal, a sort of dog with a forked tail. His long drooping muzzle is damaged, though we can recognize the long ears. His cult was important in the Delta during the New Kingdom. The name of Ramesses II, whose father was Sethos I (the name means "he of Seth"), is written on the back of this statuette. The family was from this region.

How to get to the next stop:

Walk to your right and go to the end of Room 19, "Animals and gods." Display case 11 on your right contains enormous canopic jars.

Les vases à viscères ("canopes") du taureau Apis mort sous Aménophis III
Les vases à viscères ("canopes") du taureau Apis mort sous Aménophis III

© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

17An Ancient Egyptian God

Dialogue between a father and son in room 19:
“Look! They mummified bulls just like people!”
“You know perfectly well that the Egyptians mummified their favorite animals. There is an entire showcase right here!” (he is referring to showcase 8).

Actually, they are both wrong.
The only bulls to have been honored with mummification, a practice that was meant to transform the mummy into an embodiment of Osiris, were the sacred bulls, the earthly incarnation of the god Apis, who incarnated the god Ptah at Memphis. Only a single bull at a time held this honor; when it died, it became an “Osiris Apis.” It was therefore awarded the rites performed on kings and certain humans.
These canopic vases of the sacred Apis bull that died under Tutankhamun are much larger than those used for humans. The sarcophagi, placed in special underground tombs at Saqqara, are gigantic. This spectacular necropolis can be visited at the Serapeum of Saqqara.

As for the mummies displayed in showcase 8, these were not favored domestic animals, but rather animals raised specifically to be killed and mummified. They were offered to the gods — as were bronze statuettes — by pilgrims who purchased them and had them placed in special catacombs. They thought that these images would please a god. Although they look like cadavers wrapped in a shroud and bandages, these animals were not “Osiris” gods.


How to get to the next stop:

Walk to your right and go to the back of room 19 “Animals and gods.” Showcase 11 on your right contains enormous canopic vases.

 

Author(s) :

Pierrat-Bonnefois Geneviève