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Work Marcus Aurelius (Emperor from AD 161 to 180)

Department of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities: Roman Art

The emperor Marcus Aurelius

© 2008 Musée du Louvre / Daniel Lebée et Carine Déambrosis

Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities
Roman Art

Lepetoukha C.

The bust is a (probably posthumous) portrait of Marcus Aurelius, emperor from AD 161 to 180. The technical skill, notably in the treatment of the hair and beard, typifies the so-called baroque style that was fashionable during the second century AD. This, together with the subject's enraptured expression and colossal dimensions, served to transfigure the emperor's image, emphasizing his elevated rank and exceptional character.

The emperor Marcus Aurelius

This colossal head, mounted on a modern bust, represents Marcus Aurelius, who reigned from AD 161 to 180. The large, protruding eyes and skillfully rendered mass of hair and beard are familiar features of portraits of this philosopher emperor.

A daughter's homage to her father

The portrait is one of a pair with the similarly-sized bust of Lucius Verus, co-emperor from AD 161 to 169. Both come from a villa belonging to Lucius Verus, in Acqua Traversa near Rome. The magnified, larger-than-life representation suggests that this was a posthumous portrait of the emperor, probably commissioned by his daughter Lucilla, the wife of Lucius Verus. The portrait was probably made sometime between the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180 and that of Lucilla in AD 183.

Masterly portraiture from the Nervan-Antonian dynasty

This portrait is exceptional for its size and state of preservation. It is also one of the most striking expressions of the baroque style, fashionable in the Roman empire during the late second century, and which represented a complete break with classical tradition. The exaggerated volumes of the hair and beard, deeply sculpted by the artist, contrast with the remarkable smoothness of the face; the two huge eyes, raised heavenward, give the emperor an enraptured expression. Naturalistic representation seems to have been deliberately abandoned during this period, in order to promote imperial interests by emphasizing the emperor's elevated status and character.


K. de Kersauson, Catalogue des portraits romains, II, Paris 1996, n 104, p. 236.

Technical description

  • The emperor Marcus Aurelius

    Between AD 180 and 183

    Provenance: villa of Marcus Aurelius’ daughter Lucilla at Acqua Traversa, near Rome (Italy)

  • Marble

    H. 66 cm

  • Former Borghese collection. Purchased in 1807 , 1807

    Emperor from AD 161 to 180

    Inventaire MR 559 (n° usuel Ma 1179)

  • Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities

Practical information

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Additional information about the work

The bust is modern.